Content Volume 2

Foreword.. 17

1 Wars, energy and growth.. 23 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

1.1 Britain invents oil geopolitics. 24

1.2 The First World War. 27

1.3 The 1919 Versailles Treaty. 29

1.4 The Second World War. 32

1.5 The Quincy Agreement 33

1.6 The Golden Sixties. 36

1.7 The 1970s oil crisis. 41

1.8 The calm after the storm.. 44

2 Energy geopolitics of plenty. 48 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

2.1 What is geopolitics?. 49

2.1.1 The theory of geopolitics. 49

2.1.2 Application of geopolitics to energy. 50

2.2 Geopolitics, a consequence of technology. 53

2.3 Energy’s paradigm change. 55

2.4 The impact of the oil price slump. 60

2.5 Maritime hot spots. 71

3 The EU energy policy. 80 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

3.1 The legislative underpinning. 80

3.1.1 ECSC, the surprising initiative for peace and reconciliation. 81

3.1.2 Euratom, the second EU community. 83

3.1.3 The desert balanced by technology. 86

3.1.4 Energy in the Lisbon Treaty. 90

3.2 The Energy Union. 97

3.2.1 A new energy strategy for the EU.. 97

3.2.2 Towards 2030. 104

3.2.3 A new deal for consumers. 110

3.2.4 The dilemma of Member States sovereignty. 112

3.2.5 Energy security, transparency and solidarity. 114

3.3 The Internal Energy Market 116

3.3.1 Legislation initiating the Internal Energy Market. 122

3.3.2 The state of the Internal Electricity Market. 125

3.3.3 The state of the Internal Gas Market. 129

3.3.4 The need for infrastructure. 134

3.4 The Energy Community. 138

4 The EU energy security of supply. 141 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

4.1 Energy security of supply. 142

4.1.1 What is the energy security of supply?. 142

4.1.2 Addressing the security of supply. 145

4.1.3 NATO monitors its security of supply. 150

4.2 EU energy dependency or Gulliver in chains. 152

4.3 Producing oil and gas in the EU.. 155

4.3.1 Norway, the special case. 159

4.4 The EU security of gas supply issue. 162

4.5 The EU gas dependency on Russia. 166

4.5.1 The Nord Stream partition. 168

4.5.2 The OPAL gas pipeline. 174

4.5.3 The South Stream Pipeline. 175

4.5.4 The Southern Gas Corridor. 178

4.6 The Mediterranean gas hub. 183

4.7 An end to the insulation of Poland and The Baltic countries. 188

4.7.1 Electricity.. 188

4.7.2 Natural gas. 191

5 Russia ― the energy giant.. 195 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

5.1 Russia and the EU.. 195

5.2 The Geological “Scandal”. 202

5.2.1 The Energy Perestroika and Glasnost. 208

5.3 The Ukraine Issue. 216

5.3.1 Ukraine, a strategic transit route for Russian gas. 218

5.3.2 Ukraine and the price of Russian gas. 221

5.3.3 How does Ukraine use Russian gas?. 223

5.3.4 Crises in gas transit. 224

5.3.5 Good governance, an urgent need for Ukraine. 226

5.4 The European responses to the 2006 and 2009 crises. 227

5.4.1 How risks of a supply cut were averted in 2014. 229

5.4.2 The EU’s crucial role in resolving the gas price conflict. 230

5.5 Russia and energy geopolitics. 232

5.5.1 Crimea and offshore drilling. 232

5.5.2 Russia and China. 234

5.5.3 Russia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. 239

6 Turkey and the Central Asian countries. 243 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

6.1 Turkey. 244

6.1.1 The context. 244

6.1.2 Adhesion negotiations with the EU.. 246

6.1.3 Turkey, an important energy transit state. 248

6.1.4 Turkey’s difficult relations with Russia. 250

6.1.5 Turkey is heading for an energy challenge. 254

6.2 Energy and the Caspian Sea area. 256

6.2.1 The division of the Caspian sea 260

6.2.2 Azerbaijan. 263

6.2.3 Kazakhstan. 268

6.2.4 Turkmenistan. 272

6.2.5 Uzbekistan. 276

7 The energy geopolitics of chaos. 277 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

7.1 An historical perspective. 278

7.1.1 The complicated Orient. 281

7.2 Saudi Arabia, the oil giants. 283

7.3 Iran, the gas giant 292

7.3.1 The Iran nuclear agreement is an oil and gas agreement. 293

7.3.2 The return of Iran to oil production. 295

7.3.3 The upcoming Iranian gas flood. 298

7.4 Iraq. 301

7.5 Kurdistan. 307

7.6 The Maghreb. 312

7.6.1 Algeria. 313

7.6.2 Libya. 317

7.6.3 Egypt. 320

8  The global energy scene. 323 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

8.1 Two major OECD energy countries. 323

8.1.1 Canada. 323

8.1.2 Australia. 329

8.2 Latin America. 332

8.2.1 Mexico. 332

8.2.2 Brazil 338

8.2.3 Venezuela and Trinidad & Tobago. 342

8.3 Asia. 347

8.3.1 China. 348

8.3.2. Taiwan. 358

8.3.3 Japan. 361

8.3.4 South Korea. 369

8.4 Africa, energy abundance but fuel poverty. 375

9 USA, where energy is central. 381 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

9.1 Energy is USA and USA is energy. 381

9.1.1 Security of energy supplies and renewable energy strategies   384

9.2 The new “Saudi and Iran” America. 390

9.2.1 More and more production.. 390

9.2.2 Panic on board.. 393

9.2.3 Towards oil independence.. 396

9.2.4 Is the shale oil and gas bubble going to burst?.. 398

9.2.5 The US refining challenge and the Keystone XL Pipeline Project  400

9.2.6 The dilemma of abundance: to export oil and gas or not?   406

9.3 The Bureau of energy resources. 410

9.4 Trump’s plan for energy. 415

10 Energy and transport.. 421 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

10.1 The energy-transport nexus. 422

10.1.1 Mobility, a fundamental need.. 424

10.1.2 Trends in transport demand.. 428

10.1.3 Methodologies to define efficient transport. 429

10.2 Technology evolution. 430

10.2.1 Improvement in engines and vehicle concepts.. 430

10.2.2 Improving ancillaries efficiency.. 433

10.2.3 Electric vehicles.. 434

10.2.4 Water, air and rail transport innovation.. 439

10.3 Gas in transport: change occurring at last! 442

10.3.1 Natural gas, a solution already extensively used throughout the world   444

10.3.2 Natural gas in US transport. 447

10.3.3 Natural gas in EU transport. 450

10.3.4 LNG in the maritime sector. 459

10.3.5 Fuel pollution in the maritime sector. 459

10.3.6 The IMO rules. 462

10.3.7 LNG as a means of limiting maritime pollution. 465

10.3.8 The Mediterranean Sea. 470

10.3.9 LNG in the rail sector. 473

11 Energy and Smart Cities. 475 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

11.1 Energy citizenship. 476

11.2 Cities – Key players in energy efficiency. 478

11.2.1 Local and regional energy agencies.. 478

11.2.2 The Covenant of Mayors.. 484

11.3 Smart Cities. 486

11.3.1 Smart Cities for citizens.. 487

11.3.2 Smart measurements.. 489

11.3.3 Smart challenges.. 490

11.3.4 The EU and Smart Cities.. 492

11.3.5 China and Smart Cities.. 494

11.3.6 Spatial planning and urban mobility.. 495

12 The Market versus ideology. 497 buch-geschlossen-weisser-abdeckung_318-49854

12.1 Energy and free market 498

12.2 The end of resources. 499

12.3 The Gang of Four. 503

12.3.1 The media. 503

12.3.2 Irrational enthusiasts. 506

12.3.3 Wealthy entrepreneurs. 507

12.3.4 Subsidy abusers. 510

12.4 The Levantine Sea or the governments procrastination. 515

12.5 The muddle of subsidies. 522

12.5.1 Generous subsidies for fossil fuels. 523

12.5.2 Generous green subsidies. 528

12.5.3 The Bootleggers and the Baptists’ theory. 530

12.5.4 Technology support. 535

12.6 Revival of science and market economy. 538

13 Annexes. 545

13.1 Conversion factors. 545

13.2 List of Abbreviations and Acronyms. 549

Index. 553

References. 567

 

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