This chapter starts with the institutional aspects of EU energy policy (ECSC, Euratom and Lisbon treaties). A major part of the chapter is given to the development of the Energy Union, the new EU energy strategy. This is analysed in term of the objective toward 2030, with the aim of putting the energy consumer at the centre, whilst also confronting the EU Member States with their responsibility to implement the Energy Union policies. A large part of the chapter outlines the creation of the internal energy market following the evolution of the legislation through to the present incomplete and unsatisfactory state. The state of development of the electricity and gas markets is presented and we will see that a significant amount has been achieved through the creation of new infrastructures.